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Apple Inc. Apple went public in , to instant financial success. The company developed computers featuring innovative graphical user interfaces , including the original Macintosh , announced in a critically acclaimed advertisement, ” “, directed by Ridley Scott. By , the high cost of its products and power struggles between executives caused problems.

Wozniak stepped back from Apple amicably and pursued other ventures, while Jobs resigned bitterly and founded NeXT , taking some Apple employees with him. As the market for personal computers expanded and evolved throughout the s, Apple lost considerable market share to the lower-priced duopoly of the Microsoft Windows operating system on Intel -powered PC clones also known as ” Wintel “.

In , weeks away from bankruptcy, the company bought NeXT to resolve Apple’s unsuccessful operating system strategy and entice Jobs back to the company. Over the next decade, Jobs guided Apple back to profitability through a number of tactics including introducing the iMac , iPod , iPhone and iPad to critical acclaim, launching ” Think different ” and other memorable advertising campaigns, opening the Apple Store retail chain, and acquiring numerous companies to broaden the company’s product portfolio.

Apple became the first publicly traded U. The company receives criticism regarding the labor practices of its contractors, its environmental practices, and its business ethics, including anti-competitive practices and materials sourcing. Nevertheless, the company has a large following and enjoys a high level of brand loyalty. It is ranked as one of the world’s most valuable brands. Apple Computer, Inc. The Apple II was chosen to be the desktop platform for the first ” killer application ” of the business world: VisiCalc , a spreadsheet program released in A critical moment in the company’s history came in December when Jobs and several Apple employees, including human—computer interface expert Jef Raskin , visited Xerox PARC in to see a demonstration of the Xerox Alto , a computer using a graphical user interface.

Xerox granted Apple engineers three days of access to the PARC facilities in return for the option to buy , [39] shares 5. The Lisa division would be plagued by infighting, and in Jobs was pushed off the project.

The Lisa launched in and became the first personal computer sold to the public with a GUI, but was a commercial failure due to its high price and limited software titles. Jobs, angered by being pushed off the Lisa team, took over the company’s Macintosh division. Wozniak and Raskin had envisioned the Macintosh as low-cost-computer with a text-based interface like the Apple II, but a plane crash in forced Wozniak to step back from the project.

Jobs quickly redefined the Macintosh as a graphical system that would be cheaper than the Lisa, undercutting his former division. In , Apple launched the Macintosh, the first personal computer to be sold without a programming language. The advertisement created great interest in the original Macintosh , and sales were initially good, but began to taper off dramatically after the first three months as reviews started to come in.

The board of directors instructed Sculley to contain Jobs and his ability to launch expensive forays into untested products. Rather than submit to Sculley’s direction, Jobs attempted to oust him from his leadership role at Apple. PageMaker , an early desktop publishing application taking advantage of the PostScript language, was also released by Aldus Corporation in July This dominant position in the desktop publishing market [67] allowed the company to focus on higher price points, the so-called “high-right policy” named for the position on a chart of price vs.

Newer models selling at higher price points offered higher profit margin , and appeared to have no effect on total sales as power users snapped up every increase in speed. This policy began to backfire in the last years of the decade as desktop publishing programs appeared on PC clones that offered some or much of the same functionality of the Macintosh, but at far lower price points.

The company lost its dominant position in the desktop publishing market and estranged many of its original consumer customer base who could no longer afford their high-priced products. The company pivoted strategy and in October introduced three lower-cost models, the Macintosh Classic , the Macintosh LC , and the Macintosh IIsi , all of which saw significant sales due to pent-up demand. The same year, Apple introduced System 7 , a major upgrade to the Macintosh operating system, adding color to the interface and introducing new networking capabilities.

The success of the lower-cost Macs and PowerBook brought increasing revenue. The magazine MacAddict named the period between and as the “first golden age” of the Macintosh. The success of Apple’s lower-cost consumer models, especially the LC, also led to the cannibalization of their higher-priced machines.

To address this, management introduced several new brands, selling largely identical machines at different price points, aimed at different markets: the high-end Quadra models, the mid-range Centris line, and the consumer-marketed Performa series. This led to significant market confusion, as customers did not understand the difference between models.

The early s also saw the discontinuation of the Apple II series , which was expensive to produce, and the company felt was still taking sales away from lower-cost Macintosh models. After the launch of the LC, Apple began encouraging developers to create applications for Macintosh rather than Apple II, and authorized salespersons to direct consumers towards Macintosh and away from Apple II.

Throughout this period, Microsoft continued to gain market share with its Windows graphical user interface that it sold to manufacturers of generally less expensive PC clones. While the Macintosh was more expensive, it offered a more tightly integrated user experience, but the company struggled to make the case to consumers. Apple also experimented with a number of other unsuccessful consumer targeted products during the s, including digital cameras , portable CD audio players , speakers , video game consoles , the eWorld online service, and TV appliances.

Most notably, enormous resources were invested in the problem-plagued Newton tablet division, based on John Sculley’s unrealistic market forecasts. Throughout this period, Microsoft continued to gain market share with Windows by focusing on delivering software to inexpensive personal computers, while Apple was delivering a richly engineered but expensive experience. Microsoft Corp. The major product flops and the rapid loss of market share to Windows sullied Apple’s reputation, and in Sculley was replaced as CEO by Michael Spindler.

In the wake of the alliance, Apple opened up to the idea of allowing Motorola and other companies to build Macintosh clones. Over the next two years, 75 distinct Macintosh clone models were introduced. However, by Apple executives were worried that the clones were cannibalizing sales of their own high-end computers, where profit margins were highest.

Hired for his reputation as a corporate rehabilitator, Amelio made deep changes, including extensive layoffs and cost-cutting. This period was also marked by numerous failed attempts to modernize the Macintosh operating system MacOS.

The original Macintosh operating system System 1 was not built for multitasking running several applications at once. The company attempted to correct this with by introducing cooperative multitasking in System 5, but the company still felt it needed a more modern approach. On July 9, , Jobs staged a boardroom coup that resulted in Amelio’s resignation after overseeing a three-year record-low stock price and crippling financial losses. The board named Jobs as interim CEO and he immediately began a review of the company’s products.

On May 6, , Apple introduced a new all-in-one computer reminiscent of the original Macintosh: the iMac. The device also had a striking eardrop shape and translucent materials, designed by Jonathan Ive , who although hired by Amelio, would go on to work collaboratively with Jobs for the next decade to chart a new course the design of Apple’s products.

A little more than a year later on July 21, , Apple introduced the iBook , a laptop for consumers. It was the culmination of a strategy established by Jobs to produce only four products: refined versions of the Power Macintosh G3 desktop and PowerBook G3 laptop for professionals, along with the iMac desktop and iBook laptop for consumers. Jobs felt the small product line allowed for a greater focus on quality and innovation. At around the same time, Apple also completed numerous acquisitions to create a portfolio of digital media production software for both professionals and consumers.

Apple acquired of Macromedia ‘s Key Grip digital video editing software project which was renamed Final Cut Pro when it was launched on the retail market in April Apple renamed the program iTunes , while simplifying the user interface and adding the ability to burn CDs.

The first announcement came on March 24, , that Apple was nearly ready to release a new modern operating system, Mac OS X. The announcement came after numerous failed attempts in the early s, and several years of development. In May , the company opened its first two Apple Store retail locations in Virginia and California, [] [] offering an improved presentation of the company’s products.

On October 23, , Apple debuted the iPod portable digital audio player. The product, which was first sold on November 10, , was phenomenally successful with over million units sold within six years. In , Apple’s iTunes Store was introduced. The iTunes Store quickly became the market leader in online music services, with over five billion downloads by June 19, In , Apple purchased Nothing Real for their advanced digital compositing application Shake , [] as well as Emagic for the music productivity application Logic.

The purchase of Emagic made Apple the first computer manufacturer to own a music software company. The acquisition was followed by the development of Apple’s consumer-level GarageBand application.

By August 7, , Apple made the transition to Intel chips for the entire Mac product line—over one year sooner than announced. Apple’s success during this period was evident in its stock price. In an article posted on Apple’s website on February 6, , Jobs wrote that Apple would be willing to sell music on the iTunes Store without digital rights management DRM , thereby allowing tracks to be played on third-party players, if record labels would agree to drop the technology.

On January 14, , Jobs announced in an internal memo that he would be taking a six-month medical leave of absence from Apple until the end of June and would spend the time focusing on his health.

In the email, Jobs stated that “the curiosity over my personal health continues to be a distraction not only for me and my family, but everyone else at Apple as well”, and explained that the break would allow the company “to focus on delivering extraordinary products”. After years of speculation and multiple rumored “leaks”, Apple unveiled a large screen, tablet-like media device known as the iPad on January 27, The iPad ran the same touch-based operating system as the iPhone, and all iPhone apps were compatible with the iPad.

This gave the iPad a large app catalog on launch, though having very little development time before the release. Later that year on April 3, , the iPad was launched in the US. It sold more than , units on its first day, and , by the end of the first week. In June , Apple released the iPhone 4 , [] [] which introduced video calling using FaceTime , multitasking , and a new uninsulated stainless steel design that acted as the phone’s antenna.

Later that year, Apple again refreshed its iPod line of MP3 players by introducing a multi-touch iPod Nano , an iPod Touch with FaceTime , and an iPod Shuffle that brought back the clickwheel buttons of earlier generations. On January 17, , Jobs announced in an internal Apple memo that he would take another medical leave of absence for an indefinite period to allow him to focus on his health. Chief Operating Officer Tim Cook assumed Jobs’s day-to-day operations at Apple, although Jobs would still remain “involved in major strategic decisions”.

Apple did not have a chairman at the time [] and instead had two co-lead directors, Andrea Jung and Arthur D. Levinson , [] who continued with those titles until Levinson replaced Jobs as chairman of the board in November after Jobs’ death. On October 5, , Steve Jobs died, marking the end of an era for Apple.

From to , Apple released the iPhone 4S [] [] and iPhone 5 , [] [] which featured improved cameras, an intelligent software assistant named Siri , and cloud-synced data with iCloud; the third and fourth generation iPads, which featured Retina displays ; [] [] [] and the iPad Mini , which featured a 7.

This beat the non-inflation-adjusted record for market capitalization previously set by Microsoft in In May , the company confirmed its intent to acquire Dr. Iovine believed that Beats had always “belonged” with Apple, as the company modeled itself after Apple’s “unmatched ability to marry culture and technology. During a press event on September 9, , Apple introduced a smartwatch, the Apple Watch. In January , it was announced that one billion Apple devices were in active use worldwide.

On June 6, , Fortune released Fortune , their list of companies ranked on revenue generation. In the trailing fiscal year , Apple appeared on the list as the top tech company. In November , Apple announced it was branching out into original scripted programming: a drama series starring Jennifer Aniston and Reese Witherspoon , and a reboot of the anthology series Amazing Stories with Steven Spielberg.



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Apple has a strong culture of corporate secrecy , and has an anti- leak Global Security team that recruits from the National Security Agency , the Federal Bureau of Investigation , and the United States Secret Service. In December , Glassdoor said Apple was the 48th best place to work, having originally entered at rank 19 in , peaking at rank 10 in , and falling down the ranks in subsequent years. An editorial article in The Verge in September by technology journalist Thomas Ricker explored some of the public’s perceived lack of innovation at Apple in recent years, specifically stating that Samsung has “matched and even surpassed Apple in terms of smartphone industrial design” and citing the belief that Apple is incapable of producing another breakthrough moment in technology with its products.

He goes on to write that the criticism focuses on individual pieces of hardware rather than the ecosystem as a whole, stating “Yes, iteration is boring. But it’s also how Apple does business. He acknowledges that people are wishing for the “excitement of revolution”, but argues that people want “the comfort that comes with harmony”.

Furthermore, he writes that “a device is only the starting point of an experience that will ultimately be ruled by the ecosystem in which it was spawned”, referring to how decent hardware products can still fail without a proper ecosystem specifically mentioning that Walkman did not have an ecosystem to keep users from leaving once something better came along , but how Apple devices in different hardware segments are able to communicate and cooperate through the iCloud cloud service with features including Universal Clipboard in which text copied on one device can be pasted on a different device as well as inter-connected device functionality including Auto Unlock in which an Apple Watch can unlock a Mac in close proximity.

He argues that Apple’s ecosystem is its greatest innovation. The Wall Street Journal reported in June that Apple’s increased reliance on Siri , its virtual personal assistant , has raised questions about how much Apple can actually accomplish in terms of functionality.

Whereas Google and Amazon make use of big data and analyze customer information to personalize results, Apple has a strong pro-privacy stance , intentionally not retaining user data. The report further claims that development on Siri has suffered due to team members and executives leaving the company for competitors, a lack of ambitious goals, and shifting strategies.

Though switching Siri’s functions to machine learning and algorithms , which dramatically cut its error rate, the company reportedly still failed to anticipate the popularity of Amazon’s Echo , which features the Alexa personal assistant. Improvements to Siri stalled, executives clashed, and there were disagreements over the restrictions imposed on third-party app interactions.

While Apple acquired an England-based startup specializing in conversational assistants, Google’s Assistant had already become capable of helping users select Wi-Fi networks by voice, and Siri was lagging in functionality.

The former had experienced a severe security vulnerability, in which Macs running the then-latest macOS High Sierra software were vulnerable to a bug that let anyone gain administrator privileges by entering “root” as the username in system prompts, leaving the password field empty and twice clicking “unlock”, gaining full access.

Not to say that things didn’t go wrong under his watch, but product announcements and launches felt a lot tighter for sure, as did the overall quality of what Apple was releasing. The company’s manufacturing, procurement, and logistics enable it to execute massive product launches without having to maintain large, profit-sapping inventories. In , Apple’s profit margins were 40 percent, compared with between 10 and 20 percent for most other hardware companies.

Cook’s catchphrase to describe his focus on the company’s operational arm is: “Nobody wants to buy sour milk. We’re thinking about, where are the opportunities across the U.

As of , Apple uses components from 43 countries. Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co. They make the majority of Apple’s smartphone SoCs, with Samsung Semiconductor , playing a minority role. During the Mac’s early history Apple generally refused to adopt prevailing industry standards for hardware, instead creating their own.

Apple has gradually expanded its efforts in getting its products into the Indian market. In July , during a conference call with investors, CEO Tim Cook said that he “[loves] India”, but that Apple saw larger opportunities outside the region.

The company advertised its products as being made in America until the late s; however, as a result of outsourcing initiatives in the s, almost all of its manufacturing is now handled abroad. According to a report by The New York Times , Apple insiders “believe the vast scale of overseas factories, as well as the flexibility, diligence and industrial skills of foreign workers, have so outpaced their American counterparts that ” Made in the USA ” is no longer a viable option for most Apple products”.

In , one complex of factories in Shenzhen , China that assembled the iPod and other items had over , workers living and working within it. A little over half of the workers’ earnings was required to pay for rent and food from the company. Apple immediately launched an investigation after the media report, and worked with their manufacturers to ensure acceptable working conditions.

Yearly progress reports have been published since A team from Apple is independently evaluating the steps they are taking to address these tragic events and we will continue our ongoing inspections of the facilities where our products are made. The statement was released after the results from the company’s probe into its suppliers’ labor practices were published in early Foxconn was not specifically named in the report, but Apple identified a series of serious labor violations of labor laws, including Apple’s own rules, and some child labor existed in a number of factories.

Also in , workers in China planned to sue iPhone contractors over poisoning by a cleaner used to clean LCD screens. One worker claimed that he and his coworkers had not been informed of possible occupational illnesses. A BBC investigation found excessive hours and other problems persisted, despite Apple’s promise to reform factory practice after the Foxconn suicides. The Pegatron factory was once again the subject of review, as reporters gained access to the working conditions inside through recruitment as employees.

While the BBC maintained that the experiences of its reporters showed that labor violations were continuing since , Apple publicly disagreed with the BBC and stated: “We are aware of no other company doing as much as Apple to ensure fair and safe working conditions”.

In December , the Institute for Global Labour and Human Rights published a report which documented inhumane conditions for the 15, workers at a Zhen Ding Technology factory in Shenzhen, China, which serves as a major supplier of circuit boards for Apple’s iPhone and iPad.

According to the report, workers are pressured into hour work weeks which leaves them so exhausted that they often sleep during lunch breaks. They are also made to reside in “primitive, dark and filthy dorms” where they sleep “on plywood, with six to ten workers in each crowded room.

In , there were reports stating that some of Foxconn’s managers had used rejected parts to build iPhones and that Apple was investigating the issue. As of June 6, [update] , Apple’s solar farms in California and Nevada have been declared to provide Apple will use the methane emissions to generate electricity. In , Climate Counts , a nonprofit organization dedicated to directing consumers toward the greenest companies, gave Apple a score of 52 points out of a possible , which puts Apple in their top category “Striding”.

Each product receives a Gold, Silver, or Bronze rank depending on its efficiency and sustainability. Although Apple’s data centers recycle water 35 times, [] the increased activity in retail, corporate and data centers also increase the amount of water use to million US gal 2. Lisa P. Another partnership announced is with the World Wildlife Fund to preserve up to 1,, acres 4, km 2 of forests in China. Featured was the company’s installation of a 40 MW solar power plant in the Sichuan province of China that was tailor-made to coexist with the indigenous yaks that eat hay produced on the land, by raising the panels to be several feet off of the ground so the yaks and their feed would be unharmed grazing beneath the array.

This installation alone compensates for more than all of the energy used in Apple’s Stores and Offices in the whole of China, negating the company’s energy carbon footprint in the country. Liam was introduced to the world, an advanced robotic disassembler and sorter designed by Apple Engineers in California specifically for recycling outdated or broken iPhones.

Reuses and recycles parts from traded in products. Apple announced on August 16, , that Lens Technology, one of its major suppliers in China, has committed to power all its glass production for Apple with percent renewable energy by The commitment is a large step in Apple’s efforts to help manufacturers lower their carbon footprint in China.

The standard, which started in January , certifies that all manufacturing waste is reused , recycled , composted , or converted into energy when necessary. Since the program began, nearly, , metric tons of waste have been diverted from landfills. On July 21, , Apple announced its plan to become carbon neutral across its entire business, manufacturing supply chain, and product life cycle by In the next 10 years, Apple will try to lower emissions with a series of innovative actions, including: low carbon product design, expanding energy efficiency, renewable energy, process and material innovations, and carbon removal.

Following further campaigns by Greenpeace, [] in , Apple became the first electronics manufacturer to eliminate all polyvinyl chloride PVC and brominated flame retardants BFRs in its complete product line. Allowing consumers to make informed purchasing decisions on the products they offer for sale.

In November , Apple was featured in Greenpeace’s Guide to Greener Electronics, which ranks electronics manufacturers on sustainability, climate and energy policy, and how “green” their products are. The company ranked fourth of fifteen electronics companies moving up five places from the previous year with a score of 4. However, the guide criticizes Apple on the Energy criteria for not seeking external verification of its greenhouse gas emissions data and for not setting out any targets to reduce emissions.

The green bond proceeds are dedicated to the financing of environmental projects. Apple is the world’s largest technology company by revenue, the world’s largest technology company by total assets , [] and the world’s second-largest mobile phone manufacturer after Samsung.

In its fiscal year ending in September , Apple Inc. As of August 3, [update] , Apple was the largest publicly traded corporation in the world by market capitalization. On August 2, , Apple became the first publicly traded U.

Apple has created subsidiaries in low-tax places such as Ireland , the Netherlands , Luxembourg , and the British Virgin Islands to cut the taxes it pays around the world. According to The New York Times, in the s Apple was among the first tech companies to designate overseas salespeople in high-tax countries in a manner that allowed the company to sell on behalf of low-tax subsidiaries on other continents, sidestepping income taxes.

In the late s, Apple was a pioneer of an accounting technique known as the ” Double Irish with a Dutch sandwich ,” which reduces taxes by routing profits through Irish subsidiaries and the Netherlands and then to the Caribbean.

British Conservative Party Member of Parliament Charlie Elphicke published research on October 30, , [] which showed that some multinational companies, including Apple Inc. He followed this research by calling on the Chancellor of the Exchequer George Osborne to force these multinationals, which also included Google and The Coca-Cola Company , to state the effective rate of tax they pay on their UK revenues. Elphicke also said that government contracts should be withheld from multinationals who do not pay their fair share of UK tax.

Under U. It was not until that Irish economists could definitively prove that the growth was due to Apple restructuring its controversial double Irish subsidiaries Apple Sales International , which Apple converted into a new Irish capital allowances for intangible assets tax scheme expires in January On August 30, , after a two-year investigation , the EU Competition Commissioner concluded Apple received “illegal state aid” from Ireland.

The general downturn is reportedly caused by the slowing global economy and supply chain disruptions in China. Apple has been a participant in various legal proceedings and claims since it began operation. Some litigation examples include Apple v. Samsung , Apple v. Microsoft , Motorola Mobility v.

Apple Computer. Apple has also had to defend itself against charges on numerous occasions of violating intellectual property rights. Most have been dismissed in the courts as shell companies known as patent trolls , with no evidence of actual use of patents in question.

Apple has a notable pro-privacy stance, actively making privacy-conscious features and settings part of its conferences, promotional campaigns, and public image. With Apple’s release of an update to iOS 14 , Apple required all developers of iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch applications to directly ask iPhone users permission to track them. The feature, titled “App Tracking Transparency”, received heavy criticism from Facebook, whose primary business model revolves around the tracking of users’ data and sharing such data with advertisers so users can see more relevant ads, a technique commonly known as targeted advertising.

Despite Facebook’s measures, including purchasing full-page newspaper advertisements protesting App Tracking Transparency, Apple released the update in mid-spring However, Apple aids law enforcement in criminal investigations by providing iCloud backups of users’ devices, [] [] [] and the company’s commitment to privacy has been questioned by its efforts to promote biometric authentication technology in its newer iPhone models, which don’t have the same level of constitutional privacy as a passcode in the United States.

Prior to the release of iOS 15 , Apple announced new efforts at combating child sexual abuse material on iOS and Mac platforms. Parents of minor iMessage users can now be alerted if their child sends or receives nude photographs. Additionally, on-device hashing would take place on media destined for upload to iCloud, and hashes would be compared to a list of known abusive images provided by law enforcement; if enough matches were found, Apple would be alerted and authorities informed.

The new features received praise from law enforcement and victims rights advocates, however privacy advocates, including the Electronic Frontier Foundation , condemned the new features as invasive and highly prone to abuse by authoritarian governments.

Apple contributes financially to fundraisers in times of natural disasters. As of October 26, [update] the following individuals sit on the board of Apple Inc. As of March 16, [update] the management of Apple Inc. The role of chairman of the Board has not always been in use; notably, between and , and to Apple has been criticized for alleged anti-competitive behavior , rash litigation, [] dubious tax tactics, the use of sweatshop labor, [] [] customer service issues involving allegedly misleading warranties and insufficient data security , and its products’ environmental footprint.

Apple has also received criticism for its willingness to work and conduct business with nations such as China and Russia, engaging in practices that have been criticized by human rights groups. Apple’s issues regarding music over the years include those with the European Union regarding iTunes, [] trouble over updating the Spotify app on Apple devices [] and collusion with record labels.

Without access to Apple-approved Nvidia web drivers, Apple users faced replacing their Nvidia cards with graphic cards produced by supported brands such as the AMD Radeon , from a list of recommendations provided by Apple to its consumers.

The recall affected , units, and Apple was criticized for the long waiting periods consumers experienced, sometimes extending up to 3 weeks for replacements to arrive; the company also did not provide alternative replacements or repair options. In July , following a campaign by the ” right to repair ” movement, challenging Apple’s tech repair restrictions on devices, the FTC held a workshop to establish the framework of a future nationwide Right to Repair rule.

The movement argues Apple is preventing consumers from legitimately fixing their devices at local repair shops which is having a negative impact on consumers. AGCM stated that Apple’s claims of the iPhone’s water resistance weren’t true as the phones could only resist water up to 4 meters deep in ideal laboratory conditions and not in regular circumstances.

The authority added that Apple provided no assistance to customers with water-damaged phones, which it said constituted an aggressive trade practice. Ireland’s Data Protection Commission also launched a privacy investigation to examine whether Apple complied with the EU’s GDPR law following an investigation into how the company processes personal data with targeted ads on its platform.

In December , a report found that the iPhone 11 Pro continues tracking location and collecting user data even after users have disabled location services. In response, an Apple engineer said the Location Services icon “appears for system services that do not have a switch in settings.

According to published reports by Bloomberg News on March 30, , Apple turned over data such as phone numbers, physical addresses, and IP addresses to hackers posing as law enforcement officials using forged documents.

The law enforcement requests sometimes included forged signatures of real or fictional officials. When asked about the allegations, an Apple representative referred the reporter to a section of the company policy for law enforcement guidelines, which stated, “We review every data request for legal sufficiency and use advanced systems and processes to validate law enforcement requests and detect abuse.

The United States Department of Justice also began a review of Big Tech firms to establish whether they could be unlawfully stifling competition in a broad antitrust probe in The arrangement created aligned prices for Apple products such as iPads and personal computers for about half the French retail market.

According to the French regulators, the abuses occurred between and but were first discovered after a complaint by an independent reseller, eBizcuss, in The suits come after both Apple and Google blocked the game after it introduced a direct payment system, effectively shutting out the tech titans from collecting fees. Facebook had, however, stated that the company will not participate directly with the lawsuit, although did commit to helping with the discovery of evidence relating to the trial of In the months prior to their agreement, Facebook had been dealing with feuds against Apple relating to the prices of paid apps as well as privacy rule changes.

Barr criticized Apple for refusing to unlock two iPhones of a Saudi national, Mohammed Saeed Alshamrani, who shot and killed three American sailors and injured eight others in the Naval Air Station Pensacola. The shooting was declared an “act of terrorism” by the FBI, [] but Apple denied the request to crack the phones to reveal possible terrorist information citing its data privacy policy. It said that the policy is based on the guidelines of the United Nations on business and human rights, in early September In , Apple complied with a request by the Chinese government to ban a Quran app from its devices and platforms.

The request occurred in the context of the Chinese government’s ongoing mass repression of Muslims, particularly Uyghurs, in Xinjiang, which some have labeled a genocide. In December , The Information reported that CEO Tim Cook had negotiated in a five-year agreement with the Chinese government, motivated in part to allay regulatory issues that had harmed the company’s business in China. In September , Apple removed an app from its App Store created by Alexei Navalny meant to coordinate protest voting during the Russian legislative election.

The Russian government had threatened to arrest individual Apple employees working in the country unless Apple complied. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

American multinational technology company. Traded as. Consumer electronics Software service Online services. Cupertino, California.

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Retrieved March 30, Retrieved March 22, Retrieved February 1, Launch Tomorrow. July 26, October 25, Retrieved November 8, GR Reporter. GRRreporter Ltd. June 7, Sound on Sound. SOS Publications Group. Retrieved December 16, Egg Freckles. February 24, Archived from the original on February 29, Retrieved March 23, Sign up. Start now. Download the Apple Support app. Learn more. Service and support from Apple experts AppleCare products provide additional hardware service options and expert technical support from Apple.

Learn about AppleCare plans. Sign in to My Support. Safe and reliable repairs At Apple, every product we make is built to last. Beware of counterfeit parts Some counterfeit and third party power adapters and batteries may not be designed properly and could result in safety issues. Be aware of gift card scams Learn more. Stay Connected with Apple Support. In , Apple introduced its iTools service, a set of free web-based tools that included an email account, internet greeting cards called iCards, a service called iReview that gave internet users a place to read and write reviews of Web sites, and a tool called KidSafe that promised to prevent children from browsing inappropriate portions of the web.

The latter two services were eventually canceled because of lack of success, while iCards and email became integrated into Apple’s.

Mac subscription-based service introduced in and discontinued in mid to make way for the release of the new MobileMe service, coinciding with the iPhone 3G release. Some controversy surrounded the release of MobileMe services to users resulting in expected downtime and a significantly longer release window. As a result of this, Apple extended the subscriptions of existing MobileMe subscribers by an additional 30 days free-of-charge.

This service kept most of the core services that MobileMe offered, however dropping iDisk, Gallery, and iWeb. The iTunes Music Store was launched in April , with 2 million downloads in the first 16 days. Music was purchased through the iTunes application, which was initially Macintosh-only; in October , support for Windows was added.

Initially, the music store was only available in the United States due to licensing restrictions. A version for Canada opened in December The download was The Complete U2 , by U2. Briefly, people in New Zealand were able to buy music off the Australian store.

However, that loophole was quickly closed. On February 23, , the iTunes Music Store sold its 1 billionth song. Since iTunes’ inception, it has sold over 2 billion songs, 1. Since downloadable TV and movie content was added 50 million TV episodes and 1. In early , Apple celebrated the 10 billionth song downloaded from the iTunes Music Store. In a keynote address on June 6, , Steve Jobs officially announced that Apple would begin producing Intel-based Macintosh computers beginning in This introduction came with the news that Apple would complete the transition to Intel processors on all hardware by the end of , a year ahead of the originally quoted schedule.

On January 9, , Apple Computer, Inc. In his Macworld Expo keynote address, Steve Jobs explained that with their current product mix consisting of the iPod and Apple TV as well as their Macintosh brand, Apple really wasn’t just a computer company anymore. At the same address, Jobs revealed a product that would revolutionize an industry in which Apple had never previously competed: the Apple iPhone. The iPhone combined Apple’s first widescreen iPod with the world’s first mobile device boasting visual voicemail, and an internet communicator able to run a fully-functional version of Apple’s web browser, Safari , on the then-named iPhone OS later renamed iOS.

It was another 12 months before the iPhone 3G became available on July 11, This month iteration cycle has continued with the iPhone 4 model arriving in similar fashion in , a Verizon model was released in February , and a Sprint model in October , shortly after Jobs’ death. Now two iPod types are multi-touch: the iPod nano and the iPod touch, a big advance in technology. Apple has also gone wireless, selling a wireless trackpad, keyboard, mouse, and external hard drive.

Wired accessories are, however, still available. The Apple iPad was announced on January 27, , with retail availability commencing in April and systematically growing in markets throughout The iPad fits into Apple’s iOS product line, being twice the screen size of an iPhone without the phone abilities. While there were initial fears of product cannibalization the FY financial results released in Jan included commentary of a reverse ‘halo’ effect, where iPad sales were leading to increased sales of iMacs and MacBooks.

Since , Apple’s revenues, profits, and stock price have grown significantly. On May 26, , Apple’s stock market value overtook Microsoft’s, [] [] [] and Apple’s revenues surpassed those of Microsoft in the third quarter of The Guardian reported that one of the reasons for the change was because PC software, where Microsoft dominates, has become less important compared to the tablet and smartphone markets, where Apple has a strong presence.

On March 2, , Apple unveiled the iPad’s second-generation model, the iPad 2. Like the 4th generation iPod Touch and iPhone, the iPad 2 comes with a front-facing camera as well as a rear-facing camera, along with three new apps that utilize these new features: Camera, FaceTime , and Photo Booth.

On October 29, , Apple announced structural changes to increase collaboration between hardware, software, and services. The most notable short term difference of this restructuring was the launch of iOS 7 , the first version of the operating system to use a drastically different design to its predecessors, headed by Jony Ive. During this time, Apple released the iPhone 5 , the first iPhone to have a screen larger than 3.

They released the iPad 3rd generation with Retina Display, followed by the iPad 4th generation just half a year later. The iPad Mini was announced alongside the iPad 4th gen, and was the first to feature a smaller screen than 9. This was followed by the iPad Mini 2 with Retina Display in , alongside the iPad Air , a continuation of the original 9.

Apple also released various major Mac updates, including the MacBook Pro with Retina Display , [] whilst also discontinuing the original MacBook range for a short period, before reintroducing it in with various new features, a Retina Display and a new design that implemented USB-C , while removing all other ports.

On November 25, , Apple acquired a company called PrimeSense. On September 9, , Apple announced the Apple Watch , the first new product range since the departure of Steve Jobs. The Apple Watch received mixed reviews, with critics suggesting that whilst the device showed promise, it lacked a clear purpose, similar to many of the devices already on the market.

On September 7, , Apple announced the iPhone 7 and iPhone 7 Plus with an improved camera and a faster processor than the previous generation. The iPhone 7 and iPhone 7 Plus have high storage options. On March 21, , Apple announced the iPad Apple also released the new On September 12, , at the Steve Jobs Theater , Apple introduced the iPhone 8 and iPhone 8 Plus with better camera features, more improvements in product design , user experience , performance and more, and announced the iPhone X with facial recognition technology and wireless charging.

They also announced the Apple Watch Series 4, running watchOS 5 , with an all-new design and larger display as well as many more health-related features. In , Bloomberg News reported that, as early as , a specialized unit of China’s People’s Liberation Army began inserting chips into Supermicro servers that allowed for backdoor access to them.

The iPhone 11 Pro is also the first iPhone to feature three cameras. In November , the first Mac’s with Apple silicon were launched.

In April , the M1-powered iPad was launched, along with a new M1-powered iMac offered in 7 colors, recalling the 1st generation: Tray-loading iMacs offered in 5 colors announced in They didn’t change much from the previous iPhone As cash reserves increased significantly in , Apple created Braeburn Capital on April 6, , to manage its assets.

The stock has split 2 for 1 three times on June 15, , June 21, , and February 28, Apple initially paid dividends from June 15, , to December 15, Piper Jaffray estimates future stock and revenue of Apple annually, and have been doing so for several years. Complete Documentation since From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For more general information about the company, see Apple Inc. Created by Rob Janoff in , the Apple logo with the rainbow scheme was used from April of that year [22] until August 26, Main article: Apple II series.

Apple II Plus , designed primarily by Wozniak. Disk II , also designed by Wozniak. Main article: Apple III. Main article: Apple Lisa. Main articles: Macintosh and television commercial. See also: List of mergers and acquisitions by Apple. See also: Timeline of Macintosh models.

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